Cardiovascular disease and related noncommunicable diseases were once considered a problem that only wealthy, industrialized nations faced. Together, they now rank as the leading cause of death across the globe. The vast majority of those deaths—more than 80 percent—occur in low- and middle-income countries. To address this massive global health problem, the U.S. Institute of Medicine formed a committee to create a set of tangible recommendations that would catalyze and focus action. In this special issue, Promoting Cardiovascular Health Worldwide, some of the world's foremost authorities on cardiovascular disease elaborate on the Institute of Medicine's 12 recommendations.