Cardiovascular disease (CVD) is a leading cause of mortality and is respon- sible for one-third of all global deaths. Nearly 85% of the global mortality and disease burden from CVD is borne by low- and middle-income countries. In India, for example, approximately 53% of CVD deaths are in people young- er than 70 years of age; in China, the corresponding figure is 35%. The major- ity of the estimated 32 million heart attacks and strokes that occur every year are caused by one or more cardiovascular risk factors – hypertension, diabe- tes, smoking, high levels of blood lipids, and physical inactivity – and most of these CVD events are preventable if meaningful action is taken against these risk factors. Regrettably, CVD prevention too frequently focuses on single risk factors, rather than on comprehensive cardiovascular risk.